OK, this is easy, but… What happens in this situation? Runner on first. Pitcher steps off the rubber and throws to first base and the ball goes in to the stands. Is the runner awarded one base or two bases?
Two because he is no longer a “pitcher” and a field player because he stepped off.
Easier one but very important to know.
Once the pitcher legally disengages, the throw into dead ball territory is a two base award. R1 goes to third. If the pitcher had not disengaged, it would have been only one base. One from the rubber, two from the field. (The pitcher legally disengages by stepping back off the rubber with his pivot foot prior to making the throw or feint.)
There is a legal pick-off move commonly used by right-handed pitchers when throwing to first base referred to as the jab step. In the jab step, the pitcher steps toward third base with the pivot foot and then steps to first base with the free foot. (While technically a balk under a strict reading of the rules, the move has become accepted through custom and usage over the years and is now legal at all levels of play.) Even though the pitcher “stepped off” the rubber prior to the throw, he is still consider to be in-contact with the rubber for purposes of the rules. A pick-off throw out of play during a jab step would be a one base award.